Irish emigrant James Shields

on Thursday, September 10, 2009

Promo for a documentary about Irish immigrant James Shields, based on the book by J.P. Sean Callan : " More Than Irish Luck".

James Shields
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the U.S. Senator.
James Shields
United States Senator
from Illinois
In office
October 27, 1849 – March 3, 1855
Preceded by Sidney Breese
Succeeded by Lyman Trumbull
United States Senator
from Minnesota
In office
May 11, 1858 – March 3, 1859
Preceded by None
Succeeded by Morton Wilkinson
United States Senator
from Missouri
In office
January 27, 1879 – March 3, 1879
Preceded by David Armstrong
Succeeded by George Vest
Born May 10, 1810(1810-05-10)
Altmore, County Tyrone, Ireland
Died June 1, 1879 (aged 69)
Ottumwa, Iowa
Nationality American
Political party Democratic
Military service
Service/branch United States Army
Union Army
Rank Brigadier General
Battles/wars Mexican-American War
American Civil War

James Shields (May 10, 1810 – June 1, 1879) was an American politician and United States Army officer who was born in Altmore, County Tyrone, Ireland. Shields, a Democrat, is the only person in United States history to serve as a U.S. Senator for three different states. Shields was a senator from Illinois 1849 to 1855, in the 31st, 32nd, and 33rd congresses, from Minnesota from May 11, 1858 to March 3, 1859, in the 35th congress, and from Missouri from January 27, 1879 to March 3, 1879, in the 45th congress.

* 1 Early life and career
* 2 Civil War and later career
* 3 See also
* 4 References
* 5 Notes

Early life and career

Shields was the nephew of another James Shields, also born in Ireland, who was a Congressman from Ohio. The younger Shields immigrated to the United States around 1826 and settled in Kaskaskia, Randolph County, Illinois where he studies and later practiced law. He served as a member of the State House of Representatives, beginning to serve in 1836, and then as an Illinois Supreme Court justice and in 1839 as the state auditor. (He was elected when not yet a citizen; Illinois then required only that a legislator have been resident in the state for six months.)

Shields nearly fought a duel with Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1842. Lincoln had published an inflammatory letter in a Springfield, Illinois, newspaper, the Sagamon Journal that poked fun at Shields, the State Auditor. Taking offense to the article, Shields demanded "satisfaction" and the incident escalated to the two parties meeting on a Missouri island called Sunflower Island, near Alton, Illinois to participate in a duel. Just prior to engaging in combat, the two participants' seconds intervened and were able to convince the two men to cease hostilities, on the grounds that Lincoln had not written the letters.
Shields as brigadier general during the Mexican-American War

In 1846, Shields was selected as a brigadier general of volunteers to fight in the Mexican-American War. He served under Zachary Taylor along the Rio Grande River. He commanded the 3rd Brigade, Volunteer Division, at the battles of Vera Cruz and Cerro Gordo, where he was wounded. He returned to fight at the battles of Contreras and Churubusco, his brigade now part of the 4th Division. He was again wounded at the Battle of Chapultepec.

Following the war, on August 14, 1848, he was nominated by President Polk, and confirmed by the United States Senate to serve as governor of Oregon Territory that was created that same day. However, he declined the position and Joseph Lane was nominated and became the first governor of the new territory. He resigned to run for the Senate from Illinois. His election was voided by the Senate on the grounds that he had not been a United States citizen for the nine years required by the United States Constitution; having been naturalized October 21, 1840. He returned to Illinois and campaigned for re-election, and won the special election to replace himself, and was then seated.

In 1855, he was defeated for re-election, so he moved to Minnesota. He was elected as one of the two first Senators from that state, but his term was only from 1858 to 1859, and he was again not re-elected.

Civil War and later career
Statue of Shields at the Minnesota State Capital

Shields then moved to California and served as a brigadier general of volunteers from that state during the American Civil War. He commanded the 2nd Division of the V Corps, Army of the Potomac (subsequently part of the Army of the Shenandoah), during the Valley Campaign of 1862. He was wounded at the Battle of Kernstown on March 22, 1862, but his troops inflicted the only tactical defeat of General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson during the campaign (or the war). The day after Kernstown, he was promoted to major general, but the promotion was withdrawn, reconsidered, and then finally rejected. His overall performance in the rest of the Valley Campaign was poor enough that he resigned his commission, and his departure was not resisted by the War Department.

In 1863 he moved to Mexico and operated mines, and then to Wisconsin, but in 1866 moved to Missouri, where he served as member of the state House of Representatives, and as railroad commissioner. In 1879, he was elected to fill the seat left vacant by the death of Senator Lewis V. Bogy. He served only three months and declined to run for re-election.

Shields died in Ottumwa, Iowa. He is buried in St. Mary's Cemetery, Carrollton, Missouri. He was the editor of A History of Illinois, from its Commencement as a State in 1818 to 1847 (1854). He represents Illinois in the National Statuary Hall.